BPEL and compensation
For instance, on repeated occasions I have heard renowned BPEL and workflow experts mention that compensating transactions are "perhaps" best modeled at the business logic level. This, by the way, includes Bill Burke in the case of JBoss/jBPM - see here. Note that I emphasized the word "perhaps": this indicates the shade of misunderstanding usually present in the arguments.
I have been saying this here and there in the past (and in fine detail in this article), but I want to repeat it again: BPEL, nor workflow nor WS-BA are ideal for compensation unless the compensating party doesn't care whether it needs to compensate eventually. In other words, if the compensation is business as usual to the provider of the compensatable service then BPEL might be OK (though certainly not desirable - see below).
Why is that? Put yourself in the place of a service that is asked to compensate by a BPEL engine somewhere. Also suppose that you are in a B2B ecosystem where you don't necessarily trust the party that owns the BPEL engine. Now what would you rather do: trust the BPEL to compensate - eventually (which might be never!) or rather deal with compensation yourself, say after a timeout? I would definitely choose the latter. I don't want someone else to decide when I need to compensate. I want to decide for myself, and the Atomikos TCC model allows for that. BPEL and jBPM don't.
So BPEL is ruled out for me - at least as far as compensation goes. What about WS-BA? It is a step in the right direction, but unfortunately it is a bloated protocol, very inefficient and loaded with application-level messages that pollute the compensating part. Even worse, it also suffers in a large part from the lack of timeout and depends on the BPEL to at least trigger compensation.
Also, WS-BA doesn't allow for application logic on close - I won't go and bother you with the entire spec details but it is like a try..catch...finally where the exception is raised by the client (ugly!) and where the finally block can only be empty! Again, Atomikos TCC is far superior, more efficient and more elegant. It is also more natural for compensation than any BPEL engine will ever be.
One last note on BPEL and this supposed "modeling the compensation in the business process": I was talking to an IBM architect the other day. He said that they were doing a large telco project with BPEL to co-ordinate things. One of the things he complained about was exactly this: they have to model the compensation and error logic as explicit workflow paths, and it was literally overloading everything with complexity. Moreover, this complexity is hard to test. As he correctly put it, they were implementing a transaction manager at the business logic (BPEL) level, over and again in every process model. In addition, this was also hard to test he said and that it was virtually killing the project - especially if there were change requests to consider. I believe him:-) I gave him the URL to our TCC article above.
Atomikos and TCC allow you to focus on the happy path of your workflow models. We take care of the rest. Now imagine what a reduction in complexity that is, and how much more reliable things get! So no, compensation should NOT be modeled at the business level. Except on rare occasions maybe.